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Project Management: A Systems Approach To Plann...

Now in a Tenth Edition, this industry-leading project management "bible" aligns its streamlined approach to the latest release of the Project Management Institute's Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMI's PMBOK Guide), the new mandatory source of training for the Project Management Professional (PMP) Certificat-ion Exam. This outstanding edition gives students and professionals a profound understanding of project management with insights from one of the best-known and respected authorities on the subject.

Project Management: A Systems Approach to Plann...


Taylor, Gantt, and others helped make project management a distinct business function that requires study and discipline. In the decades leading up to World War II, marketing approaches, industrial psychology, and human relations began to take hold as integral parts of project management.

During World War II, complex government and military projects and a shrinking war-time labor supply demanded new organizational structures. Complex network diagrams, called PERT charts and the critical path method were introduced, giving managers more control over massively engineered and very complex projects (such as military weapon systems with their huge variety of tasks and numerous interactions at many points in time).

This view of business as a human organism implies that for a business to survive and prosper, all its functional parts must work in concert toward specific goals, or projects. In decades since the 1960s, this approach toward project management began to take root in its modern forms. While various business models evolved during this period, they all shared a common underlying structure: a project manager manages the project, puts together a team, and ensures the integration and communication of the workflow horizontally across different departments.

The system approach to project management is a method of organizing and managing project activities in a systematic and organized manner. It involves breaking down a project into smaller, more manageable components, and then using a set of standardized processes and tools to plan, execute, and control the project. The system approach typically includes the use of project management software, clear project objectives, a detailed project plan, and a system for monitoring and controlling project progress. This approach is designed to improve project efficiency and effectiveness by reducing the risk of project failure and ensuring that all stakeholders are aligned and working towards the same goals.

The system approach principle, is one of several principles used in project management practice. Its recommendations and guidelines underlay the structure of research methodologies, specific methods and techniques, which are used in the design process.

In projects we often use system approach and we event don't realize this. An example of the system approach to project management is the construction of a new skyscraper. The project would be broken down into smaller, more manageable components, such as site preparation, foundation work, steel construction, electrical and plumbing systems, and finishing work. A project manager would use a set of standardized processes and tools, such as flow diagrams, Gantt charts, and PERT diagrams, to plan, execute, and control the project.

The project manager would start by defining the system boundaries and objectives for the project, such as the size and scope of the building, the budget, and the deadline for completion. Next, the project manager would identify the components of the system and how they are interconnected. For example, site preparation would need to be completed before foundation work could begin, and steel construction would need to be completed before the electrical and plumbing systems could be installed.

If any issues or problems arise during the project, the project manager would use the monitoring and control tools to identify and address them. This helps to keep the project on track and ensure that it is completed as planned. The system approach is used to manage the project from start to finish, and ensure that it is completed on time, within budget and meets the quality standards.

The system approach is used in a variety of fields, including project management, engineering, manufacturing, and business management. It is based on the principles of systems thinking, which involves understanding how different components of a system are interconnected and how changes to one component can affect the entire system.

Conflict in project management is inevitable. The potential for conflict in information systemsdevelopment projects is usually high because it involves individuals from different backgroundsand orientations working together to complete a complex task. The cause of conflict in teamprojects can be related to differences in values, attitudes, needs, expectations, perceptions,resources, and personalities. Proper skills in dealing with conflict can assist project managersand other organization members to handle and effectively resolve conflicts which can lead to amore productive organization as a whole.

Project management is a methodological approach to achieving agreed upon results within a specifiedtime frame with defined resources. (1) It involves applying knowledge, skills, tools, andtechniques to a wide range of activities in order to meet the requirements of a project.The major objectives of project management include performance, cost, and time goals. (2)The focus is to meet customer expectations, deliver projects within budget, and complete projectson time. Project management is helpful in achieving these objectives by organizing, planning, monitoring,controlling, and correcting the project activities. These activities consist of creating a workableproject environment, keeping the work environment healthy, planning the essential activities tobuild the information system or product, and controlling execution of the plan. (3)

Barki and Hartwick tested a model of how members of information systems development (ISD) projectsperceive interpersonal conflict and examined the relationships between interpersonal conflict,conflict management styles, and ISD outcomes. (22) In the study, interpersonal conflict wasdefined as "a phenomenom that occurs between interdependent parties as they experience negativeemotional reactions to perceived disagreements and interference with the attainment of their goals."The results suggest that individuals' assessments of interpersonal conflict were formedbased on disagreement, interference, and negative emotion. Interdependence was not a factor intheir assessment. Negative emotion was found to be a significant part of an individuals'perception of interpersonal conflict. Although conflict management styles were shown to havepositive effects on ISD outcomes, the negative effects of interpersonal conflict on the outcomeswere not alleviated. Regardless of how the conflict was managed or resolved, the study demonstratedthat the impact of interpersonal conflict was perceived to be negative. The researchers concludedthat management and satisfactory resolution of interpersonal conflict are important. However,prevention of interpersonal conflict should be the greater focus.

The use of the cognitive analysis approach resulted in more agreement among the parties in conflict.Cognitive feedback provided information on reasons why the disagreement occurred among the partiesand on areas that needed to be addressed to reach an agreement. This approach allowed the projectmembers involved in the conflict to concentrate on the real differences that provoked thedisagreement rather than only discussing the effects of the conflicting situation. The findingsfrom this study suggest the use of cognitive feedback can be effectively applied to conflictresolution.

An awareness of the potential approaches to conflict resolution and the understanding of theirconsequences can provide project managers with a invaluable set of tools to create an optimal workenvironment.

Conflict in project management is not necessarily unfavorable when properly managed. Severaladvantages have been identified such as increasing personal growth and morale, enhancingcommunication, and producing better project outcomes. However, conflict can be the decline of anorganization if it is not effectively managed. The challenge for organizational leaders andproject managers is to try to maintain the right balance and intensity of conflict in projectmanagement. By utilizing project management principles, understanding the dynamics of conflict,and learning approaches to conflict resolution, managers will be able to establish an environmentin which creativity and innovation is encouraged and project goals are accomplished.

The new formula program is much more geared towards meeting the state of good repair needs of rail systems and also includes an important provision that the funds this program may only be used by projects identified in the investment prioritization of transit asset management plans that will be required under the national transit asset management system.

In addition to creating the safety and state of good repair performance based transit program as MAP 21 also authorized performance0 based approach to transportation planning and programming for both state DOTs and metropolitan planning organizations. If you're familiar with the transportation planning process you know that state DOTs and NPOs must develop long range transportation plans and adopt the program or projects known as the transportation improvement programs or TIPS and STIPS.

MAP 21 incorporates the performance based approach into these planning projects for both the NPOs and state DOTs. As both Richard and John have noted, states and NPOs will need to integrate the goals, objectives, performance measures and targets of the safety and transit asset management performance plans into their planning process.

Transportation systems management and operations (TSM&O). An integrated program to optimize the performance of existing infrastructure through the implementation of systems, services, and projects designed to preserve capacity and improve security, safety, and reliability of the transportation system. 041b061a72

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